Benchmark Assignment: Part B Literature Review

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Benchmark Assignment: Part B Literature Review

Benchmark Assignment: Part B Literature Review

 

Introduction

The prevalence of childhood obesity continues to raise a serious public health concern. The development of the condition is significantly influenced by poor parental practices as parents tend to give their children inappropriate food, which eventually puts them at high risk of developing childhood obesity. The prevalence of obesity among the children is higher among the minority ethnic groups including the African Americans and Latino Americans. According to the federal government statistics, the prevalence of childhood obesity among the Latino American children is 25.8% and this is slightly higher than the rate recorded for the African American children (“State of Childhood Obesity”, n.d.). Therefore, exploring effective measures to address and reduce childhood obesity among the Latin Americans is significantly essential.

Methodology

The study involves literature review where a total of five articles were reviewed. The selection of the articles was based on their relevance to the research topic. Several databases such as CINHAL, NCBI, Sage, PubMed among others were employed to get these articles. During the search process for pertinent articles, key search words included ‘pediatric obesity, childhood obesity, Culturally Tailored, Family Centered and Behavioral Interventions.’ A total of 25 articles were retrieved in the initial search; this was filtered to 5 articles based on the clinical research appraisal guidelines.

Literature Review

The study conducted by Falbe, Cadiz, Tantoco, Thompson, and Madsen (2015) explored the effectiveness of culturally tailored obesity interventions among Latino children. The study involved testing the impact of the family-centered culturally tailored obesity on the body mass index as well as determining the cardiovascular risks among the Latino children. A randomized control trial study design was utilized whereby a population of 55 parent-child dyads was given an active and healthy family or the contemporary care waits for the list-control condition. The selection of the dyads was based on their ability to speak Spanish and provided that they took care of children aged between 5 and 12 years. The active and healthy families’ interventions were given for 10 weeks. The results indicated that children receiving the AHF intervention recorded a significant reduction in the BMI and also exhibited a relative improvement compared to the control in terms of blood pressure, triglycerides level and fasting blood measures. Falbe et al. (2015) concluded that AHF interventions were more effective in the management and prevention of childhood obesity among Latino children. However, there is a need to explore further the mechanisms involved in the health improvement under the interventions. The findings from the study are relevant in exploring the PICOT in the current study. AHF is among the family interventions that have been proposed in the current study that could help reduce body mass index.

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Further, Smith et al., (2018) explored the impact of the family-centered intervention for pediatric obesity in the primary care setting. Pediatric obesity is a major public health concern that is associated with early mortality, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. Slight

Benchmark Assignment Part B Literature Review

Benchmark Assignment Part B Literature Review

changes in the dietary intake, body mass index (BMI) and physical activities can significantly reduce the risks associated with the development of cardiovascular conditions. According to the study, family-based behavioral interventions have been underutilized in the management and prevention of obesity among children. The study employed a randomized control trial where the effectiveness of the Family Check-Up 4 Health programs were evaluated. A total of 350 families with children aged between 6 and 12 years were recruited in the study. The children were identified as overweight; though, the criteria used in identifying the overweight children are not well defined and this can be improved in the future studies. The population characterized by multi-ethnic groups including the Latinos, African Americans, and the American Indians.

Findings from the study are important and effective in the implementation of programs that prevent excess weight gain and thus relevant in this study. Smith et al. (2018) concluded that the FCU4Health program was effective in helping reduce childhood obesity. The purpose of the current study is to explore and develop effective evidence-based approaches that can be used to manage and reduce the incidences of childhood obesity among Latino children. In as much as there are existing approaches used in the prevention of childhood obesity, developing superior measures would be more beneficial and effective in reducing the incidences of childhood obesity and the associated burden (Smith et al., 2018). Primary care is promising in enhancing the parenting behaviors associated with children’s health. Considering that children spent most of their time with the parents and only interact with the healthcare providers occasionally, employing the family-based interventions is more effective in promoting the beneficial outcomes and preventing the development of obesity. The Family Check-Up 4 Health is an enhancement from the conventional family check-up interventions (Smith et al., 2018). However, the study was limited on the check-up; though, various factors are likely to trigger the development and progression of childhood obesity and thus should be factored in the future studies.

According to Barkin et al. (2018), behavioral-based interventions are essential in reducing the BMI trajectories among the Latino pres-school aged children. A randomized clinical trial was employed in exploring the role of behavioral control programs in reducing obesity among the underserved Latin American children (Barkin et al., 2018). A multi-component behavioral intervention was developed and the growth trajectories of the children monitored among children aged between 3 and 5 years in a 36 months’ program. In the clinical trial, a total sample population of 610 patient-child pair was used from the Latino and other underserved communities. The enrollment into the program took place between August 2012 and May 2014 with the follow-up running up to June 2017. The intervention in the study involved a 36-month family-based and community-centered program characterized by 12 weekly sessions of skill building and then 9 months of coaching and telephone calls. The main outcome measure in the study was the BMI trajectory over 36 months. The study findings indicated that the intervention was effective in lowering the mean caloric intake and thus would significantly reduce the risk of developing obesity (Barkin et al., 2018).  However, there was no conclusive reporting on whether the multi-component behavioral intervention changed the BMI trajectory or not; therefore, this would require further research to come up with a conclusive answer to the question (Barkin et al., 2018). The findings from the study form the baseline and background for exploring the role of Culturally Tailored, Family Centered Behavioral Intervention in preventing obesity among Latin American children. Childhood obesity is mainly associated with poor dietary intake. Therefore, teaching parents on the best feeding habits would help save their children from obesity and other nutritionally-related diseases and disorders.

While obesity impacts all ethnic groups, the Latinos and African American are the most affected groups. Therefore, the study conducted by Suarez-Balcazar, Friesema, and Lukyanova (2014) explored the evidence in the cultural competent measures in addressing and preventing obesity among the pediatrics. The study focused on mixed ethnic groups; though, the current study aims at addressing childhood obesity among the Latino American populations only. The study involved a literature review where over 80 articles describing the successful interventions were reviewed. Furthermore, the study highlighted that obesity interventions are complex and require a lot of strategies. In reducing childhood obesity, measures should be developed to promote healthy eating and regular physical exercises among the children. The study emphasized on the importance of cultural-competency as a major strategy that can be adapted to reduce childhood obesity. The study findings provide useful insights that will guide the scope of the current study in exploring the study problem. The incidences of childhood obesity are alarming and thus urgent and effective interventions are needed to address the public health concern.

In addition, the study conducted by Volger, Radler, and Rothpletz-Puglia (2018) explored the rate of obesity among the pre-school children and how developed family and cultural-based interventions would be used to reduce them. The study involved a scoping review conducted according to the Askey and O’Malley’s framework in providing an overview of the types and cost-effectiveness of the prevention measures. A total of 34 studies were reviewed; this was too small to provide reliable findings that can be inferred to the general population. The findings indicated that interventions targeting behavioral change and interpersonal health-level were effective in reducing the rates of childhood obesity among the targeted populations.

Comparison, Limitations and Controversies

The findings from the study conducted by Barkin et al. (2018) and Volger, Radler, and Rothpletz-Puglia (2018) showed a positive correlation between the adoption of Culturally Tailored, Family Centered Behavioral Intervention and childhood obesity prevention and this corroborates the findings in the other studies reviewed in this case. However, the study time-frame for each case differed significantly with some taking up to 36 months while others even taking a shorter time. For example, the study conducted by Barkin et al. (2018) involved 36 months of follow-up while Falbe, Cadiz, Tantoco, Thompson, and Madsen, (2015) only took 10 weeks. The other studies employed a different approach which was literature review; this means that their findings are based on what have already been studied among different population groups. The sample population employed in the study by Smith et al., (2018) was significantly large to provide reliable findings. On the other hand, the other studies reviewed in this analysis employed a limited sample population and this could increase the bias in the study findings.

Areas of Further Study

In the current study, a large population sample will be recruited to enhance the credibility of the findings and answer to the research question. In as much as the studies explored the role of Culturally Tailored, Family Centered and Behavioral Intervention in prevention of childhood obesity, genetic implications in mediating the outcomes have not been addressed and thus should be considered in the further studies. Also, there is need to develop effective intervention that would yield desirable outcomes within a short period. The current study aims at exploring the role of the interventions in reducing childhood obesity among the Latin American children within a period of six months. By building on the already existing studies, the current findings will be reliable and can be used to develop recommendations for addressing the issue.

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