Module 3 Assignment Multiple Sclerosis

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Module 3 Assignment Multiple Sclerosis

Module 3 Assignment Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple
Sclerosis

Multiple
sclerosis is a condition that affects the central nervous system. In this
assignment, you will explore this condition in more detail using the scenario
below.

Scenario:

A friend of
yours discloses that he was recently diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. Being
the caring friend you are, you wish to know more about the condition and how
you can best support your friend. You decide to research this disease further.

To complete
this assignment, do the following:

Research
this disease using a minimum of 2 sources. You can use your textbook for one of
the sources. Choose the remaining source(s) from the GALE Virtual Reference
Library provided on the Structure and Function of the Human Body library guide
page.

In a
minimum of 2 pages (not counting the references page), address the following:

Explain how
multiple sclerosis affects the nervous system.

Describe
the treatment options that are available for your friend.

State
whether it was possible for your friend to have prevented this condition.

Include a
references page at the end of your document, formatted using the APA
guidelines, that lists your research sources.

Disease course

Most people with MS have a relapsing-remitting disease course. They experience periods of new symptoms or relapses that develop over days or weeks and usually improve partially or completely. These relapses are followed by quiet periods of disease remission that can last months or even years.

Small increases in body temperature can temporarily worsen signs and symptoms of MS, but these aren’t considered true disease relapses.

At least 50% of those with relapsing-remitting MS eventually develop a steady progression of symptoms, with or without periods of remission, within 10 to 20 years from disease onset. This is known as secondary-progressive MS.

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The worsening of symptoms usually includes problems with mobility and gait. The rate of disease progression varies greatly among people with secondary-progressive MS.

Module 3 Assignment Multiple Sclerosis

Module 3 Assignment Multiple Sclerosis

Some people with MS experience a gradual onset and steady progression of signs and symptoms without any relapses, known as primary-progressive MS.

Causes

The cause of multiple sclerosis is unknown. It’s considered an autoimmune disease in which the body’s immune system attacks its own tissues. In the case of MS, this immune system malfunction destroys the fatty substance that coats and protects nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord (myelin).

Myelin can be compared to the insulation coating on electrical wires. When the protective myelin is damaged and the nerve fiber is exposed, the messages that travel along that nerve fiber may be slowed or blocked.

It isn’t clear why MS develops in some people and not others. A combination of genetics and environmental factors appears to be responsible.

Risk factors

These factors may increase your risk of developing multiple sclerosis:

  • Age. MS can occur at any age, but onset usually occurs around 20 and 40 years of age. However, younger and older people can be affected.
  • Sex. Women are more than two to three times as likely as men are to have relapsing-remitting MS.
  • Family history. If one of your parents or siblings has had MS, you are at higher risk of developing the disease.
  • Certain infections. A variety of viruses have been linked to MS, including Epstein-Barr, the virus that causes infectious mononucleosis.
  • Race. White people, particularly those of Northern European descent, are at highest risk of developing MS. People of Asian, African or Native American descent have the lowest risk.
  • Climate. MS is far more common in countries with temperate climates, including Canada, the northern United States, New Zealand, southeastern Australia and Europe.
  • Vitamin D. Having low levels of vitamin D and low exposure to sunlight is associated with a greater risk of MS.
  • Certain autoimmune diseases. You have a slightly higher risk of developing MS if you have other autoimmune disorders such as thyroid disease, pernicious anemia, psoriasis, type 1 diabetes or inflammatory bowel disease.
  • Smoking. Smokers who experience an initial event of symptoms that may signal MS are more likely than nonsmokers to develop a second event that confirms relapsing-remitting MS.

Complications

People with multiple sclerosis may also develop:

  • Muscle stiffness or spasms
  • Paralysis, typically in the legs
  • Problems with bladder, bowel or sexual function
  • Mental changes, such as forgetfulness or mood swings
  • Depression
  • Epilepsy
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