MSN 6218 DQ Using Technology to Increase Access
MSN 6218 DQ Using Technology to Increase Access
important to consider access to care as we examine the resources and cost of
providing care to underserved areas. Improving access is not just about the
cost of care or whether a patient has insurance coverage, but also how we can
meet the needs of an increasing population with a decreasing pool of resources.
the underserved population you described in the second discussion in Unit 6.
available and emerging technology help to improve access to patient care in the
area you described?
the potential barriers to implementing this technology?
ethical, legal, or cultural issues should be examined?
evidence supports technological solutions to the problem of access?
Remember to adhere to the requirements listed in the Faculty Expectations
Message for unit discussion posts and peer responses.
two colleagues’ posts. In your responses, consider the following questions:
provide evidence to indicate whether other technology solutions might also help
to improve access in this community?
offer an example of how your colleague’s proposed technology solution improved
or did not improve access in another setting or community?
If so, what
was the reason for its success or failure?
activity will help you achieve the following learning components:
leadership, management, and communication processes.
culture of the organization and community.
why people resist change.
the underlying causes of conflict.
cultural values and norms and patterns of behavior.
Guiding Principles for Use of Technology with Early Learners
The thoughtful use of technology by parents and early educators can engage children in key skills such as play, self-expression, and computational thinking which will support later success across all academic disciplines and help maintain young children’s natural curiosity.
The Departments recognize that families and early educators have many different options for using technology with early learners. The Departments believe that guidance needs to reflect the reality that families and early educators have access to apps, digital books, games, video chatting software, and a multitude of other interactive technologies that can be used with young children. Even as new technologies emerge, the Departments believe that these principles apply, though guidance may evolve as more research on this topic is published.
The Departments’ four guiding principles for use of technology with early learners are as follows:
- Guiding Principle #1: Technology—when used appropriately—can be a tool for learning.
- Guiding Principle #2: Technology should be used to increase access to learning opportunities for all children.
- Guiding Principle #3: Technology may be used to strengthen relationships among parents, families, early educators, and young children.
- Guiding Principle #4: Technology is more effective for learning when adults and peers interact or co-view with young children.
Two documents in particular influenced the development of the Departments’ guiding principles: Uses of Technology to Support Early Childhood Practice and the 2016 National Education Technology Plan (NETP).
HHS published Uses of Technology to Support Early Childhood Practice9 in March 2015 to examine how technology can be used to support and improve the quality of practice of early childhood practitioners, particularly in their own professional development. The report presented an overview of research related to the use of technology by conducting a literature review and consulting with experts on the topic in four key focus areas: 1) instruction and assessment; 2)
parent, family, and community engagement; 3) professional development and informal learning; and 4) facilitators and barriers.
At ED, the Office of Educational Technology released the 2016 NETP, the federal government’s flagship educational technology policy document. Titled Future Ready Learning: Reimagining the Role of Technology in Education, the plan articulates a vision of equity, active use, and collaborative leadership to make everywhere, all-the-time learning possible for all learners. While acknowledging the continuing need to provide equitable access to technology itself, the plan goes further to call upon all involved in American education to ensure equity of access to transformational learning experiences enabled by technology, including for early learners.10
The Departments’ four principles state the position of the Departments on this topic and are expanded below.
Guiding Principle #1:
Technology—when used appropriately—can be a tool for learning.
Developmentally appropriate use of technology can help young children grow and learn, especially when families and early educators play an active role. Early learners can use technology to explore new worlds, make believe, and actively engage in fun and challenging activities. They can learn about technology and technology tools and use them to play, solve problems, and role play.
How Do You Determine What is Developmentally Appropriate for a Child When it Comes to Technology?
In Technology and Interactive Media as Tools in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children from Birth through Age 8, the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) and the Fred Rogers Center state that “appropriate experiences with technology and media allow children to control the medium and the outcome of the experience, to explore the functionality of these tools, and pretend how they might be used in real life11.”
Lisa Guernsey, author of Screen Time: How Electronic Media—From Baby Videos to Educational Software—Affects Your Young Child, also provides guidance for families and early educators. For example, instead of applying arbitrary, “one-size-fits-all” time limits, families and early educators should determine when and how to use various technologies based on the Three C’s: the content, the context, and the needs of the individual child.12 They should ask themselves following questions:
- Content—How does this help children learn, engage, express, imagine, or explore?
- Context—What kinds of social interactions (such as conversations with parents or peers) are happening before, during, and after the use of the technology? Does it complement, and not interrupt, children’s learning experiences and natural play patterns?
- The individual child—What does this child need right now to enhance his or her growth and development? Is this technology an appropriate match with this child’s needs, abilities, interests, and development stage?
Appropriate use in formal early learning settings
Early educators should keep in mind the developmental levels of children when using technology for early learning. That is, they first should consider what is best for healthy child development and then consider how technology can help early learners achieve learning outcomes. Technology should never be used for technology’s sake. Instead, it should only be used for learning and meeting developmental objectives, which can include being used as a tool during play.
When technology is used in early learning settings, it should be integrated into the learning program and used in rotation with other learning tools such as art materials, writing materials, play materials, and books, and should give early learners an opportunity for self-expression without replacing other classroom learning materials.13 There are additional considerations for educators when technology is used, such as whether a particular device will displace interactions with teachers or peers or whether a device has features that would distract from learning. Further, early educators should consider the overall use of technology throughout a child’s day and week, and adhere to recommended guidelines from the Let’s Move initiative, in partnership with families. Additionally, if a child is eligible for services under IDEA and/or Section 504 and Title II, the student may require specific technology to ensure that the student can access the instructional material.
What Are Some Differences Between Using an e-Book and a Physical Book with Early Learners?
E-books have the potential to provide learning experiences for children and they also have capabilities that are impossible to deliver in print format. For example:
- A device can hold a complete library of stories and information for children to explore.
- Words and sentences can be highlighted during oral narration.
- Children can elect to have a pre-recorded narrator read the entire text out loud to them.
- Children can experience embedded interactive features within the text.
On the other hand, research has shown that some interactive features may actually impede a young child’s comprehension.14, 15 An example is a feature that allows children to jump around to different points in the story, which can make it difficult for developing readers to follow a sequence of events.
The optimal way for children to experience a physical book or an e-book is with an adult who is actively involved,16, 17 asking questions that allow children to expand on what they’ve read to make connections and providing opportunities to check for comprehension. However, the design of some e-books may dampen parents’ desires to play that interactive role. Two research studies have shown that when parents read e-books that have features that asked questions, parents were less likely to play that role with their children while reading together,18, 19. On the positive side, another research study showed that children who read an e-book with a parent remembered content better than children who read an e-book alone, regardless of what the parent was saying during the reading.20
When making decisions about incorporating e-books, parents should consider what features are available and when and how they will be used. Bedtime use of e-books may also require additional considerations. For example, currently there is limited research on the impact on sleep when using e-books for bedtime reading, but some research suggests that the backlighting of electronic devices can curtail the amount of time children spend sleeping if a device is used right before bedtime.21
Just as with other educational tools, school-aged children should be taught how to correctly handle and care for devices. These skills and the use of technology should generally not be taught as a separate rotation or class, but rather integrated into the learning objective of the lesson.22 In some cases, however, individualized instruction may be desirable to meet the specific needs of a child. As children grow older, they should continue to build on this basic skill set with lessons in digital citizenship.