NHS 8050 Discussion Evidence-Based Practice
NHS 8050 Discussion Evidence-Based Practice
Review the unit readings and complete your own research. In your initial post:
Discuss what EBP means in your field.
Assess the move toward evidence-based efforts across the health care and public health environments.
Compare and contrast the application of qualitative methods versus quantitative methods in the movement toward EBP.
Post according to the Faculty Expectations Response Guidelines. Be sure to include at least one APA-formatted citation (in-text plus full reference). The citation should be from materials you have read during this unit. It may be from course textbooks, assigned readings, or an outside source
1. Compare and contrast qualitative and quantitative research.
Qualitative research involves the use of procedures that rely on findings based on human reasoning and behavior. It engages research designs that emphasize the collection of data that is related to naturally occurring phenomena. The assessment of collected data does not involve any form of enumeration but rather seek to understand the phenomena from which they are obtained. Quantitative research on the other hand entails the use of numbers, statistics, control and structure. Methods used in quantitative research involve systematic prediction, determination and generalization of findings to describe the data collected. The phenomena studied are compared with their quantitative properties and the same can be extended to various aspects of education (Johnson & Larry, 2007).
When comparing the two forms of research it is apparent that quantitative research uses deductive mathematical models to analyze the hypotheses formed in the study of natural phenomena while qualitative research involves the use of prior knowledge to form interpretations that are more subjective. Another difference between the two forms of study is the nature of quantitative research being replicable as data collected in a quantitative survey can be analyzed and used in the comparison of a repeated study at a later time. Qualitative research is not easily repeatable as it deals with inductive data that cannot be directly used in comparison with data obtained with qualitative studies covered at a later time.
A common criticism of qualitative research is that it is “too subjective.”
I do not agree with this assertion. Critics of this form of research describe it as being subjective due to the fact that it deals with studies of phenomena in the perspective of the researcher. Thus it becomes hard to duplicate findings obtained from such forms of research as the interpretation depends wholly on the analysis of individual studies. The reliability of qualitative research comes into question in comparison to quantitative research which is considered more objective. However, qualitative research may not be as reliable when it comes to comparison with repeated studies but is more valid as the direct interpretation of data collected by the qualitative researcher has a closer relation to the objectives of the research
2. Why is it important to consider the elements of APA when writing a research report?
APA is the standard format used in writing reports in most scientific fields. Thus when it comes to research reports, it is considered the ideal format to use. The importances of the elements of APA include the simplicity in which information can be communicated to all interested parties who require the research. The general APA guidelines regarding the format of the report therefore make it easy for researchers to locate particular data in the report that they may be looking for. APA guidelines also make it simpler for the researchers to follow the process of research in a chronological manner. This is facilitated by the order of the report which thus enables future researchers into the same field of topic to easily compare their findings with those of previous studies. This provides a form of replication which is essential especially in quantitative research and is facilitated by the APA format.
APA is also provides a professional format of crediting the work done by authors from which parts of their work may be sourced when writing the research report. This is done using in-text citations, also referred to as parenthetical citations, and the use of a reference or work cited page (Szuchman, 2002). This is a catalog of the various sources used by the researcher in writing the report. The importance of this is the credibility that the report obtains as any critics can easily see the professional authors whose works are sourced by the writer. It also reduces the chances of the researcher being accused of plagiarism as any works sourced from other writers are easily identifiable both in terms of the citations within the text and the complete source listed in the reference page
Another advantage of APA when writing a research report is the commonality that the framework has in many countries on a global scale. The format is also used by many students, researchers, scholars and instructors. It is also used in many forms of documents due to its professional aspect. Thus using this format makes it simple to dissect information contained in the research reports by all members of all other fields of learning and research. This also makes APA the generally accepted format thus it making it more economical and effective to use in writing research reports
3. Why is it important to conduct a review of the literature as part of a research project?
Literature review is an important investigative summary and fusion of the knowledge obtained from a research to the past works of other researchers in the scientific field being studied. It forms a comparison to the different theories presented through past findings as well as a relation focusing on the theme of the research (Kumar, 2005). It is important to analyze the literature during the actual research process so as to acquire a professional direction to the study that is provided through the ideas and thoughts of previous writers.
The literature review is also important in that it gives credibility to the research process as a whole. Thus any readers assessing the research material are presented with the concept in a way they consider significant. This is on the account that the concepts under the scope of study are backed up by the works of previous researchers through their literature. They also provide the current researcher with a venue of presenting his goals of expanding the range of knowledge provided by the previous research.
The review of literature gives the researcher an absolute reflection into the actual process of research. Thus it is easier for the researcher to observe previous methodology and theses provided, the pragmatic processes of studying the theses, and the inference obtained. The researcher is then able to comprehend the literature not only to rewrite in the project but also for intent in the use during conducting the actual research. It also provides critics with proof of the originality of the research report and the additional research into the topic of study that the research has found as a worthy addition to previous works.
What are some ways to “narrow” a literature search?
In order to effectively search for appropriate literature it will be important to follow a few guidelines. These can be summarized by first deciding on the source of material, the nature of the material required, the professional authors whose materials are to be sourced, and eventually finding what is needed for the project. On obtaining a source of material, such as a library, it becomes important to locate the sections of the same dedicated to the topic of study. Search tools are available on the internet for users of electronic materials found online. Having located the source of material, it becomes imperative to determine the nature of material required whether it being books or journals, reports and conference materials, or any other type of reference materials.
The level of professionalism on choosing the authors can be determined by the recognition that they have acclaimed in their fields of expertise. The authoritativeness and the level of motivation demonstrated by the writers should also be related to the field of topic into which the research is intended. Having selected specific writers, it is then up to the researcher to decide what literature is important for the laid out objectives of the project. To determine whether the literature under question is relevant, the researcher should first look at the topics in the index, and read through the introduction and concluding chapters. Having looked at the topics, the relevant content is checked for adequacy. If the book passes the initial checks, it is then important to summarize and assess it. In the case a book has an abstract section, the same becomes an added advantage in determining whether the book is relevant or not.
4. What have you learned in terms of what is a part of all research, even action research? How will this assignment help prepare you in your own action research project?
In order to carry out an efficient research into a specific field of study there are several factors and steps to consider. To begin with, an efficient researcher identifies a gap in the available knowledge about a particular topic or issue that previous researchers may have researched little on or overlooked completely (Mertler, 2006). It is then important to identify the form of research to be carried out, whether it is of a quantitative or a qualitative nature. This will be determined by whether the issues being addressed can be quantified or can be assessed by behavior and reasoning. The next step involves the review of previous literature by first selecting relevant materials and properly citing it in the works using a professional format. This format will also come in handy during the final stage which involves writing the actual report and will give it the required credibility.
These insights will become an essential part of conducting the action research project as they provide the necessary background into how to conduct a research effectively. Knowledge of the same will make it easy to complete a credible research project within a given period of time in a manner in which all pertinent issues are addressed completely.
5. Brief Summary of Questions and Readings
I believe all aspects of the questions and readings will be an essential aid in conducting future research. First, the ability to choose between the research methods is critical in setting objectives that aim at solving the research problem. Also helpful is the emphasis on use of relevant literature to back up the project and how to efficiently select and use the same. The use of proper formats in writing reports to give credibility to work is also stressed from these materials.
As regards my education career, I believe that the questions help in teaching on how to identify on problems in any field of study and how to properly form action research methods to provide solutions to the same. The analysis of previous writers and the use of their works in aiding though the actual process will be added values in the education sector in which action research methods are critical in providing effective services in the teaching industry.
Research Designs and Reading Research Reports presents the different types of research methods, that are qualitative, quantitative and mixed, and the various forms of these categories. It presents the various design terms and concepts that are used in the process of carrying out research as well as publishing research reports.
Research Problems: Statements, Questions, and Hypotheses, provides insights into how to formulate research problems that are accurate and relevant to the field of study. It also gives a variety of examples as to identifying the sources of such research problems and the principles of determining their importance in terms of the educational context as well as the structure of reports on the same.
Kumar, R, (2005). Research Methodology: A Step-by-step Guide for Beginners, Sage Publishers
Johnson, B., & Larry, B, (2007). Christensen Educational Research: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Approaches, Sage Publications.
McMillan, J. H., & Schumacher, S, (2006). Research in Education: Evidence-Based Inquiry, 6th Ed, Allyn & Bacon, Pearson Education.
Mertler, C, (2006). Action Research: Teachers as Researchers in the Classroom, Sage Publishers
Szuchman, L. T, (2002). Writing with Style: APA Style Made Easy, Virginia: Wadsworth/Thomson Learnin