NSG 5000 Project Professional Practice Paper

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NSG 5000 Project Professional Practice Paper

NSG 5000 Project Professional Practice Paper

Based on the AP role of the person that you interviewed in
W1 Project, in a 3- to 5-page paper (excluding the title page, references, and
appendices) describe the role, the type of organization, and address all the
interview questions, and include:

List the type of organization. For example: Primary care
office, ED, Specialty, cardiology GI etc.

List the type of and how many clients it serves. FP would
see all ages. Research in your area the number of visits in a local office per
year or # of visits seen local ED, specialty office etc.

the professional fit for advanced nursing role.
“Fit” refers to the Qualifications in order to be an AP provider at
that agency/organization. What license, credentialing (accrediting agency, and
other expectations NPI, CMS)?

Include a brief job description

Discuss board of nursing NPA or scope of practice of the
state. Include what the NPA in the state allows and restrictions.

Submission Details:

Submit your document to the Submissions Area by the due date
assigned.

1 Ethics in professional life
One of the hallmarks of professional institutes is that they have developed codes of ethical behaviour
that all members are required to abide by. The Advisory Council of the Chartered Institute for
Archaeologists appointed a committee of practitioners to consider a range of ethical issues and to
create guidance notes to assist the wider membership in developing greater awareness and expertise
in considering ethical issues. This Professional Practice Paper synthesises the results of that committee’s
workings.
Professional ethics are founded on values and transcribed into rules by professionals acting collectively
in the form of a professional association. These rules are created by professionals to deal with complex
situations where right and wrong are not easily perceived and may not even be fixed. It is conventional
for professional ethics to be seen through a prism of consequentialism: what would be the
consequences of each of the courses of action a member might choose to take to resolve the situation
in which they find themselves? Professionals tend to look at who will benefit and who might be harmed,
and weigh them in a balance. Professionals tend to take a utilitarian approach – seeking the best
outcome for the most people. This can obviously be tricky. Take a parallel in criminal sentencing, where
we are prepared to sacrifice the rights of liberty of an individual to secure a marginal increase in safety
for many potential victims. Or, closer to home ground, we may make a single developer pay a substantial
sum for archaeology to secure a benefit for many (the public), none of whom would be otherwise likely
to consider the benefit worth paying that same amount for personally.
This approach may be helpful when considering for whom we are working: to whom is our first
responsibility?
• our employer
• the profession
• a client
• a public authority
• the public
The questions here revolve around whom we serve, who our audiences and stakeholders are and what
we owe them. CIfA members will be familiar with the statement about the Institute working for the public
interest – not in the first instance working for their own benefit, for the benefit of their organisation – but
for the public. This can hardly be over-emphasised. Atul Gawande, writing in a very different context
(The Checklist Manifesto, 2009), has this explicit observation:
All learned occupations have a definition of professionalism, a code of conduct. … all have at least
three common elements. First is an expectation of selflessness: that we who accept responsibilities
for others … will place the needs and concerns of those who depend upon us above our own.
Second is an expectation of skill: that we will aim for excellence in our knowledge and expertise.
This is an expectation of trustworthiness: that we will be responsible in our personal behaviour
toward our charges.
When should we refuse to provide a professional service? For example, what if a client were to ask us
to do some work that we would like to do because it is potentially interesting, but it is work that the
client does not really need us to do to comply with planning law?
Working through ethical issues may be ‘interesting’ in an intellectual sense – perhaps because there are
few ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ answers but many answers of varying ‘rightness’. However interesting and
intellectually challenging this may be, the process of working out the best ethical response is often
uncomfortable and can cause considerable anxiety. This feeling of anxiety is an important clue that you
are dealing with an ethical dilemma.
One of the best and most usable books on the application of ethics is Ethicability by Roger Steare
(2014). This approach is widely used and respected in many and diverse professional contexts and has
been tested over nearly a decade of use – it is a proven approach to ethical behaviour.
Loyalty is always multifaceted, but our primary loyalty must always be to the public. Do I also owe loyalty
and a duty of care to my employers? To other stakeholders and individuals? We address this question
below, using Steare’s recognition of different ethics of ‘care’, ‘reason’ and ‘obedience’.
Steare proposes a useful mnemonic device to aid a balanced approach to ethical problems based on
doing the RIGHT thing.
R what do the Rules say?
I how do I act with Integrity – that is, how do I integrate my values into my actions?
G to whom would the possible courses of action do the most Good?
H to whom would the possible courses of action do the most Harm?
T am I being Truthful? How comfortable would I feel explaining why I acted the way I did to a group
of my professional peers? If I think I wouldn’t be comfortable, it is a bad sign!
Steare also outlines three moral consciences that may be helpful to practitioners facing moral or ethical
issues.
An Ethic of Care is linked to the philosophy of ‘consequentialism’ or ‘utilitarianism’ and asks us to decide
what is right by considering the consequences, good and bad, of our actions upon others. Based on
feelings such as love, care and empathy, an ethic of care is a crucial part of our moral character and
helps us to decide what is right in both personal and professional relationships. We tend to act with
empathy and this may be most easily seen within families and close friendship groups. As a weakness, it
tends to marginalise minorities and may lead to the conclusion that the end justifies the means.
4 An introduction to professional ethics  September 2017
An Ethic of Reason is based upon virtues, principles such as wisdom, and self-control as defining
aspects of who we are. This allows us to decide what is right by thinking through our actions and
making rational choices, and to exercise self-control and restraint. The Ethic of Reason develops and
grows as we gain experience in making good – and bad – decisions. We tend to act with reason, and
this may be most easily seen in businesses, academia and bureaucracies. As a weakness, it tends to be
perhaps too rational and decisions may be flawed unless we have very good and complete information.
The Ethic of Obedience is based upon ‘deontology’ – that what is right and wrong comes from rules
which are external to ourselves, e.g. God-given or law-given. We tend to act with fear of the
consequences of being ‘caught’ and, like reason, this ethic may be most easily seen in businesses,
academia and bureaucracies. The real weakness is that it may absolve us from thinking for ourselves on
the basis that all we have to do is follow all the rules (but there are never rules for everything, which
leaves us to drift with little guidance). One reason why some business sectors or parts of life become
intensely regulated may be that we cannot rely on people stopping to think carefully about what is right.
A concept that recurs in every discussion of ethics is integrity. Integrity means, primarily, the sum of the
principles that define our moral values and guide the way we live and behave with others; integrity can
be seen as the extent to which we base our behaviour upon and act in harmony with our principles and
values. For example, fairness helps us respect rights and duties, while kindness, patience and trust help
make the world a better place. Who would argue with a life guided by principles such as wisdom,
fairness, courage, patience, trust, optimism, generosity, honesty, and respect? When we identify
principles that we value and think are good, those principles should guide all our actions. This in turn
means that personal and professional integrity (and ethics!) should always be consistent. We have
integrity when we live according to a set of moral values, and if we act against those values then we
lose our integrity and are hypocrites.
Ethics is also a way to resolve conflicts of desire in our personal lives, conflicts of interest in our
professional and business lives, and conflicts of principle when values conflict with each other.
Lest a practitioner/reader think that this discussion is too idealistic and not directly related to the hard
work of running a business or a large organisation, Steare points us toward persuasive analyses of
business and leadership by Goleman (2000), Collins (2001 & 2009) and George & Sims (2007). These
should disprove any such concern.
September 2017  An introduction to professional ethics 5
2 Ethics in summary: balancing conflicting priorities
There is a consistent theme throughout the case studies included in this paper: each involves a
balancing of conflicting priorities – but not of conflicting values. Honesty and a care for the feelings of
other people are values and should hold true always, but a need to be honest may involve harming an
individual’s feelings. This is where ethics comes in – in deciding which takes priority and in deciding
how to communicate decisions to other parties.
Steare provides a set of 20 questions arranged in three stages to help us resolve conflicts of desire or
conflicts of interest.
Preparation
1 Time out!
2 How do we feel?
3 Who‘s involved?
4 What are the facts?
5 What sort of dilemma is this?
6 What are our intentions?
7 What are our options?
8 Have we thought creatively?
Decide what’s RIGHT
9 What are the Rules?
10 Are we acting with Integrity?
11 Who is this Good for?
12 Who could we Harm?
13 What’s the Truth?
6 An introduction to professional ethics  September 2017
These preparatory questions should be considered
before tacking the details of the RIGHT
methodology to ensure we have the right mind-set
and questioning frameworks to ask ‘what if’ or
‘what difference does this make’ types of
questions.
These five questions are examined in each of the
case study situations below, using the RIGHT
mnemonic as a structure.
Testing our decision
14 How would we feel in their shoes?
15 What would be fair and reasonable?
16 What would be the adult thing to do?
17 What would build trust and respect?
18 What would stand the test of time?
19 Have we the courage to do what is right?
20 What can we learn from this dilemma?
The discussion so far has been quite general and theoretical; now we need to apply these generalities
to more specific terms and contexts familiar to archaeologists. In the example case studies presented
below we will refer to legal codes and/or the CIfA Code of Conduct, which sets out the shared moral
and ethical values that the Institute has agreed and to which all CIfA members agree to adhere. We will
also use Steare’s RIGHT framework to guide you in asking yourselves questions and to help in making
recommendations.
September 2017  An introduction to professional ethics 7
These questions should be considered after
tackling the details of the RIGHT methodology,
as a self-reflexive learning exercise.
3 Case study: archaeology
Example 1: Should a field archaeological investigation include the careful trowelling or hoeing of the
base of archaeological trenches dug to inform a planning application?
Example 2: Should an archaeological post-excavation analysis programme include detailed analysis of
Roman pottery when the primary research interest is on prehistoric remains?
What do you do?
8 An introduction to professional ethics  September 2017
The CIfA Standard and guidance for archaeological field
evaluation is silent on these issues, but the general point is
made: ‘An archaeological field evaluation will determine, as
far as is reasonably possible, the nature of the archaeological
resource within a specified area using appropriate methods
and practices. These will satisfy the stated aims on the
project, and comply with the Code of conduct and other
relevant regulations of CIfA’.
The CIfA documents set the outcome required and advise on
approach in broad terms. Other ‘rules’ may be included in the
employer’s site manual or similar, and in the WSI.
Both case-study questions involve ‘cutting corners’, probably
with the motivation of saving time and money. How does this
relate to our avowed motivation of providing an excellent
service, or to retrieve and record the appropriate/reasonable
amount of data (given the aims of the project) from an
investigation that cannot be repeated? (Here we use the
equation quality = fit for purpose, and ‘quality’ therefore needs
thoughtful definition, rather than being an abstract concept.)
R What do the Rules say?
I How do I act with Integrity –
how do I integrate my values
into my actions?
September 2017  An introduction to professional ethics 9
There might be minor ‘good’ for the organisation – and a
commercial client – in saving time/money.
There might well be significant harm (via loss of irreplaceable
information) to the general public – we would be harming the
quality of our results by missing features or by not
understanding the Roman phase of a site.
G To whom would the possible
courses of action do the
most Good?
H To whom would the possible
courses of action do the
most Harm?
How would this action, if revealed openly, relate to our overall
Code and how comfortable would you feel explaining your
actions to a group of your professional peers? Would you be
honouring what we say we should be doing as professionals? If
you think you wouldn’t be comfortable it is a bad sign!
T Am I being Truthful?
10 An introduction to professional ethics  September 2017
These case studies are likely to involve the following clauses of
the Code of conduct (published December 2004): Principle 1,
Rule 1.1 and in particular Rule 1.13. Depending on the particular
circumstances from which conflict arises, a number of other
rules may also be relevant; in the examples provided, all rules in
Principle 2 are applicable.
The Code of conduct says that archaeologists have a duty of
care to avoid or manage conflicts of interest. Where a potential
conflict of interest is identified it is imperative that all parties
concerned are made aware, and that appropriate measures are
put in place. This is necessary to avoid future dispute and
accusations of bringing the profession into disrepute
Act with honesty. You owe a client a duty of honesty, which may
mean delivering unwelcome advice.
R What do the Rules say?
.
I How do I act with Integrity –
how do I integrate my
values into my actions?
4 Case study: conflicts of interest
A conflict of interest arises when someone is ‘confronted by competing loyalties, responsibilities or
duties’. A professional archaeologist should be able to recognise when there is a conflict of interest, be
it professional or personal, and has a duty not to undertake work that favours self-interest or has been
subject to undue influence from the interests of other parties.
Example 1: A client is exerting pressure on the curator to sign off an area of investigation, when you
know as an archaeologist that there is still work to be carried out in order to comply with the
approved Written Scheme of Investigation.
Example 2: A project manager has to decide between two candidates for a project, one of which is their
partner.
What do you do?
Given the many different spheres of practice archaeologists engage with (e.g. voluntary, professional,
academic), it is impossible to define all potential conflicts of interest. Instead, individuals should try to be
straightforward and honest in all professional and business relationships. As a small profession,
interpersonal relationships are largely unavoidable, but where conflict arises, seeking the opinion of a
third party can help ensure transparency and fairness in decision making.
September 2017  An introduction to professional ethics 11
The individuals involved? The archaeological
organisations? Clients and other stakeholders?
Who would benefit in the long term if planning law were
to be circumvented?
Which employees might be harmed or benefited if a
decision were to be made based upon personal
emotions rather than a rational assessment of skills?
In Example 1, how do you defend aiding one client at the
expense of weakening the planning process, or allowing
the loss of heritage remains?
In Example 2, how would you defend against an
accusation of bias and dishonesty?
G To whom would the possible
courses of action do the
most Good?
H To whom would the possible
courses of action do the
most Harm?

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T Am I being Truthful? How
comfortable would I feel
explaining my actions to a
group of my professional
peers? If I think I wouldn’t be
comfortable it is a bad sign!
12 An introduction to professional ethics  September 2017
5 Case study: equality and diversity
Equality and diversity as a topic encompasses a wide range of issues relating to the discrimination faced
by different groups and/or individuals on the basis of (among many reasons) their chosen gender[s],
sexual orientation[s], ethnic origins, age, social class, physical and mental states, and religious beliefs.
People may suffer many different forms of discrimination, including harassment and bullying, denial of
work experience, promotion and training opportunities, and physical and verbal assault. The only
consistent and defining element of this topic is that a group or individual experiences some form of
discrimination by others.
Archaeology, although generally a welcoming working environment, suffers from particular social and
cultural problems that can lead to discrimination. Historically, it is perceived as a white, male,
middle/upper-class, heterosexual-dominated work area and the inherent biases of this social group
remain firmly entrenched in much of the field to the present day. In addition, many archaeologists come
into regular contact with non-heritage professionals who may act (either deliberately or accidentally) in a
discriminatory way when working with archaeologists who may be of a very different background to
them. Such discriminatory problems can be exacerbated by the physical working conditions
experienced in some archaeological workplaces, such as limited private space (including washing and
toilet facilities), and remote or inaccessible locations, including extended periods of working away from
their homes and neighbourhoods, often in different types of rented accommodation.
Example 1: A newly arrived member of staff in a university archaeology department is sexually harassed
by one of their colleagues at a work social event; Professor X makes a series of sexually
inappropriate comments to them that they find offensive. When they mention this to their
Head of Department they are told ‘not to make a fuss’ if they value their career, as Professor
X is extremely distinguished and could make life very difficult for them, potentially ruining
their career. Upon making discreet enquiries, they discover that Professor X has a track
record of such behaviour and considers such ‘teasing’ as ‘par for the course’ in a university.
Example 2: A female project director on a commercial archaeological excavation faces continual verbal
harassment of herself and her site crew by the construction workers on site. This
harassment includes inappropriate sexual comments being made by the workers and the
repeated placement of explicit pornographic images in the on-site toilets. Upon raising the
issue with the site foreman (an older white man), she is told that this is normal ‘banter’ from
‘the lads’ and that he cannot (and will not try to) do anything about it. Upon complaining to
her senior management, the project director is told that this is too major a client for the
organisation to risk upsetting. She is subsequently reassigned to direct another project,
although her manager denies that this move is connected to her complaint.
Example 3: A member of staff of a CIfA Registered Organisation who has a long history of excellent
work researching and writing Desk-Based Assessments is registered deaf. For many years
this has not been a problem, and adjustments were made – including the provision of
special phone equipment and sign-language translators in meetings and events – in order
to enable their full participation in the life and work of the organisation. However, a new
Chief Executive arrives and implements a round of cost-cutting that includes asking if the
organisation should continue to pay for any more sign-language translators. When the staff
member challenges this suggestion, the Chief Executive suggests that they might be able to
make do with reading meeting notes/minutes after any meetings or events and by
submitting ideas and questions in writing before or after such events.
September 2017  An introduction to professional ethics 13
Example 4: A colleague who has long self-identified as male begins to transition to a female identity,
with the intention of eventually undergoing gender reassignment surgery. As part of this,
they ask to be known by their new chosen name, Jane, and begin to wear women’s clothes
and to live life fully as a woman. While the majority of colleagues are supportive, a few
struggle with the transition, especially those who have known Jane for a long time. Some
female colleagues admit that they find Jane using the women’s toilet facilities particularly
hard to deal with. As a result, Jane is asked to use the disabled toilets for the time being.
What do you do?
These examples, which arose during many discussions,
all touch upon legal issues as well as ethical questions,
and this is common. In each case there are clear
instances of acts that are illegal – and are hence not
questions of ethics
What are the primary values at play here? Honesty?
Fairness? Respect?
The questions of Good and Harm are very apposite in
these examples.
Minimising immediate harm to some individuals – by, for
example, not forcing legal issues – conflicts with
maximising good for the same and other individuals.
Do differences in, for example, gender or ethnicity justify
unfair treatment?
And perhaps more interestingly, when does treating
different people differently become unfair, or
hypocritical?
R What do the Rules say?
.
I How do I act with Integrity –
how do I integrate my values
into my actions?
G To whom would the possible
courses of action do the most
Good?
H To whom would the possible
courses of action do the most
Harm?
T Am I being Truthful? How
comfortable would I feel
explaining my actions to a
group of my professional
peers? If I think I wouldn’t be
comfortable it is a bad sign!
6 Case study: professional competence
Projects need to meet time, budget and quality requirements to be successful. Achieving these results
can be challenging and this is where professional competency plays a key role.
Example 1: An archaeological organisation wins a highly competitive tender for an archaeological
project. They recover a major finds assemblage and in order to save time and money the
project manager decides not to x-radiograph any of the ironwork and, instead of employing
an experienced specialist, a junior and relatively inexperienced staff member is asked to
write up the pottery assemblage.
Example 2: Salaried employees may be unlikely to receive additional pay for the hours in excess of the
contracted hours per week when a consultant is working to tight deadlines and still
expected to achieve high-quality analysis. There are many examples of how organisations
and individuals cope with these kinds of conflicting interests. Some may involve illegal
actions.
While professional reputation is important, so too is an effective work–life balance. This reveals a conflict
between ethics involving respect and care for individuals and employees and a desire to maximise
financial gain for the organisation and for individuals. This ethical quandary needs to be addressed by
both the employer (assuming the employer is willing to recognise the excessive hours worked) as well
as the employee. Both might acknowledge the situation and agree to a short-term solution, but equally
note that long-term sustainability based upon care and respect between both parties depends upon a
solution based upon fairness.
Comments
Individuals are required to maintain their professional knowledge and skills at the level necessary to
ensure they provide clients and/or employers with service compliant with current best practice (Rule 1.4).
Employers have a duty of care to ensure employees are able to balance work requirements and home
commitments.
What do you do?
There are established guidelines published for the minimum standard expected for finds recording;
compliance with these is a mark of best practice and adherence by all parties is expected. If there are
budget constraints then it is for the organisation to investigate how this has occurred and seek specialist
advice on how best to proceed.
The Code of conduct reminds members that the work aspirations of colleagues should be recognised
and respected. It is up to an individual to decide if the work they are being asked to undertake falls
outside their professional competency; it would be unfair of an employer to deliberately place an
employee in such a position. It should also be noted that employees also have ethical responsibilities! It
may be seen as a positive action to decline to undertake work that one is not yet qualified to do,
because it can open up opportunities for mentoring and training. Line managers should be willing and
able to arrange mentoring or facilitate the use of freelance specialists. Maintaining a CPD record can act
as a safeguard by providing a record of competency and highlighting areas for improvement.
14 An introduction to professional ethics  September 2017
September 2017  An introduction to professional ethics 15
For cases involving professional competency, refer to the
following clauses of the Code of conduct (Published
December 2014): Principle 1, Rules 1.4, 1.6 1.13, 1.14,
Principle 2, Rule 2.1, Principle 3, and Principle 5, Rule 5.8.
Individuals are required to maintain their professional
knowledge and skills at the level necessary to ensure
they provide clients and/or employers with service
compliant with current best practice (Rule 1.4). Employers
have a duty of care to ensure employees are able to
balance work requirements and home commitments.
See also CIfA’s policy statement on training:
www.archaeologists.net/sites/default/files/Policy%20state
ments_updated%20030816_0.pdf
As with the previous case study, these examples involve
‘cutting corners’, possibly to save time and money, or
secure the continued employment of an early-career
specialist, or to provide opportunities for learning and
professional development. How does this relate to our
avowed motivation of providing an excellent service, or
retrieving and recording the maximum amount of data
from an investigation that cannot be repeated?
Who benefits? The individuals involved? The
archaeological organisations? Do you expect to work
without pay, and if not, how do you justify expecting
others to do so?
Who is harmed? The individuals involved? The
archaeological organisations? Clients and other
stakeholders?
Does profit justify loss of unique information?
How comfortable would you feel explaining why you
decided to cut corners to save some money, thus
sacrificing archaeological knowledge, to a group of your
professional peers? Can you confidently say that you
were motivated by a desire to provide a developmental
opportunity for an early-career specialist? If you think
you wouldn’t be comfortable it is a bad sign!
R What do the Rules say?
I How do I act with Integrity
– how do I integrate my
values into my actions?
G To whom would the
possible courses of action
do the most Good?
H To whom would the
possible courses of action
do the most Harm?
T Am I being Truthful?
7 Case study: gifts and hospitality
Bribery is commonly illegal – in the UK see the Bribery Act 2010. Discussions of bribery are legal not
ethical discussions. Less overt inducements, however, may give rise to ethical concerns.
Example 1: On a very large project the developer wants the archaeologists to ‘do things to fit into the
programme’, thus cutting corners and underreporting the results of an archaeological
investigation. This has been made clear but never expressly stated. The developer has
arranged for the archaeologists to take delivery of a number of 4-by-4 vehicles for the use
of the unit’s directors and has implied the vehicles may be kept.
Example 2: An archaeological contracting unit is very keen to win a large tender with a new foreign
client and arranges a book launch with the intention of inviting the directors awarding the
tender, wining and dining them, and paying for their travel and accommodation (note:
genuine hospitality, as long as it is proportionate, is legal).
This discussion is thus far all about the rules – of law and those in the adopted code of conduct. What
are the ethical issues here? Fairness and honesty most obviously – all the examples involve actions
based on dishonesty by various individuals (not all illegal) or decisions based upon criteria that are not
being fairly applied.
What do you do?
16 An introduction to professional ethics  September 2017
According to the Bribery Act 2010, it is illegal to offer,
promise, give, request, agree, receive or accept bribes.
What constitutes a bribe may be large scale, such as
inducements and kick-backs allegedly proffered to secure
an outcome, or more subtle, such as a supplier offering
tickets to an FA cup final to a client in appreciation of their
longstanding working relationship. The Bribery Act 2010
(http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2010/23/pdfs/ukpga_201
00023_en.pdf) provides guidance on how to comply with
the law if there is any chance an inducement may be offered
or accepted.
These case studies involve the following clauses of the
Code of conduct (published December 2014): Principle 1,
specifically Rules 1.6 and 1.9. Example 1 also breaches
Principles 2 and 3 regarding the archaeological record.
Principle 1 states that: ‘A member shall adhere to high
standards of ethical and responsible behaviour in the
conduct of archaeological affairs’.
Specifically, Rule 1.6 states that ‘A member shall know and
comply with all laws applicable to his or her archaeological
activities whether as employer or employee, and where
appropriate with national and international treaties,
conventions and charters including annexes and schedules.’
R What do the Rules say?
September 2017  An introduction to professional ethics 17
Clear breaches of the Code of conduct by a Registered
Organisation should be reported to CIfA through the
complaints procedure.
Bribery is illegal, but the use of inducements involves
dishonesty and unfairness – how would you justify that to
your peers?
For example, what about an explicit bonus for early
completion? Is it okay to accept an explicit incentive to
do what should be done, more quickly or better, with a
clear definition of what the team is supposed to do?
How comfortable would you feel explaining your actions
to a group of your professional peers? Might the benefit
offered be perceived as influencing your behaviour or
decisions? If you think you wouldn’t be comfortable it is a
bad sign!
Act with fairness and honesty. Might the benefit offered
influence your behaviour or decisions?
The individuals involved? The archaeological
organisations? Clients and other stakeholders?
A short-term immediate benefit for an individual (a
bribe) should be weighed in the balance against the
long-term widespread harm to many individuals and
organisations arising from the lack of honesty and
fairness.
I How do I act with Integrity –
how do I integrate my values
into my actions?
G To whom would the possible
courses of action do the most
Good?
H To whom would the possible
courses of action do the most
Harm?
T Am I being Truthful?
R (continued)
18 An introduction to professional ethics  September 2017
8 Case study: health and safety
Generally, health and safety considerations are almost always legal issues, because most legislatures
have decided that the consequences of improper action are so serious (injury or death) that it is in the
public interest for the government to legislate. Hence the issues are legal rather than moral or ethical.
Rather than give advice on H&S or legal compliance here, we present examples and look at them
differently, through the lens of the moral judgements (or lack thereof) that may underpin the hypothetical
actions.
Example 1: At a tender interview for a remote job that has been estimated at a minimum of 15 days, the
archaeological contractor intimated they could reduce costs by not having any welfare on
site. The employer has relayed this to staff after winning the work.
Example 2: An organisation might try to avoid the costs of ‘confined spaces training’ on the basis that it
is only one employee, in one small space for a short period of time, would be affected.
Setting aside the obvious legal breaches, the case studies clearly reveal thinking that lacks fairness or
respect in the treatment of individuals. A short-term saving in not providing training or site welfare
reveals a clear lack of respect for the individuals involved in either case, a lack of concern for their
health and welfare, or fairness in the way these specific cases are being handled by the organisation.
What do you do?
A member of CIfA shall always act with integrity, and in both examples, there is a statutory duty on the
employer and in example 2, also on the colleague who is aware of an issue. Both issues must be raised
with the employer directly or via a work safety or trade union representative. With regards to example 2,
concerns must be expressed immediately to the person in charge on site, as there is a clear and
present danger. If the matter is not satisfactorily resolved, you can raise it with the relevant enforcing
authority – in the UK this is the Health and Safety Executive (HSE).
September 2017  An introduction to professional ethics 19
Legal issues should be raised with the Health and Safety
Executive.
Act with respect, fairness, and care for others.
The individuals involved? The archaeological
organisations? Clients and other stakeholders?
When H&S issues are involved it is often difficult to find
any real beneficiaries (like anyone whose risk of harm is
reduced or whose anxiety about harm to themselves or
others is reduced).
On the other hand, those who may be harmed may be
more obvious and more numerous – individuals,
organisations, the general public, etc.
Any act or decision that puts others at risk is may be
unlawful, but certainly is negligent or careless and may
involve dishonesty, a lack of respect and concern, and
hypocrisy.
How comfortable would you feel explaining your actions
to a group of your professional peers? If you think you
wouldn’t be comfortable it is a bad sign!
R What do the Rules say?
I How do I act with Integrity
– how do I integrate my
values into my actions?
G To whom would the
possible courses of action
do the most Good?
H To whom would the
possible courses of action
do the most Harm?
T Am I being Truthful?
20 An introduction to professional ethics  September 2017
9 Case study: social media
The use of social media has increased exponentially in recent years and such media serve many
valuable and useful purposes. These channels also bring risks that should be taken into account before
use in professional contexts.
Example 1: An archaeologist is working on a large and exciting investigation and tweets (or posts on
Facebook, Instagram, etc.) about some of the discoveries. This reveals to a wider audience
that exciting discoveries have been made, leading a local group to engage with statutory
authorities regarding formal protection for the site in order to preserve their local greenfield
informal recreation area, and thus jeopardising the developer’s investment in the land.
Example 2: An illustrator publicising the finds on a site could encourage opportunistic local treasure
hunters/nighthawks to damage the site after-hours while looking for objects of interest to
them. This could include human remains as well as archaeological artefacts and result in the
loss of archaeological context as well as finds.
For archaeology, the ethics surrounding dissemination are important all the way through a project.
Comments
The examples involve the dissemination of information that arises from a commercial contract to parties
outside that contract. Social media is without question an effective way to engage local people in a
project, but this should be done whilst retaining confidentiality and site security. Before any use of social
media, it is imperative to ascertain what content may be posted and when.
What do you do?
First, seek clarity from your line manager about if, when, and for what information the use of social media
would be appropriate. Senior managers should seek a clear agreement with clients about the same
questions so that neither they nor their staff act in a manner that might be contrary to a client’s best
interests. Equally, senior archaeologists should seek clear agreements prior to starting work that, when
the results of investigations are no longer commercially sensitive, the results will be appropriately
published. It would be prudent for CIfA members who employ staff, or Responsible Post-holders of
Registered Organisations, to develop formal policies governing the use of social media by all
employees.
Responsible Organisations should include social media clauses in client contracts as well as in the onboarding process for all staff. In addition, for example, employees could be asked to sign a social media
agreement, and all staff should be aware of an employer’s policy regarding confidential findings. An
employee’s personal social media accounts should be used in an equally responsible manner – the
above is a ‘corporate’ view but individual members must behave with equal regard to the ethics of
confidentiality, or be vulnerable to accusations of unethical and unprofessional conduct. This could be
brought under the umbrella of corporate responsibility if it were made a clause of employment contracts.
September 2017  An introduction to professional ethics 21
In many ethical dilemmas, there are likely to be cogent
arguments on both sides, and this could be reflected in
CIfA’s Code. These examples are likely to involve the
following clauses of the Code of conduct (Published
December 2014): Principle 1, Rules 1.1 and 1.2 and 1.3.
Rules 1.10 and 1.11 go directly to the heart of the issues
here – the revelation of information to third parties. A
member may also feel that Rule 1.13 is relevant as well.
On the other hand, Principle 4, Rules 4.4, 4.6 and 4.7 –
making provision for the publication or information – may
also be thought to support the use of social media to
inform the public.
The Standards and guidance touch on confidentiality
too, for example, the Standard and guidance for
archaeological excavation, paragraphs 3.2.12, 3.4.6 and
3.11.5.
The examples involve the dissemination of information
that arises from a commercial contract to parties outside
that contract. It is common for commercial contracts to
include clauses about confidentiality of information.
How do you act with justice and fairness to clients and to
employees?
Always provide a high standard of service – broadly this
means ensuring that your client or others to whom you
have a primary professional responsibility will receive the
best possible advice, support or performance from you in
relation to both the archaeological heritage and to media
and public relations.
R What do the Rules say?
I How do I act with Integrity
– how do I integrate my
values into my actions?
Communications ‘in real time’ may conflict with
confidentiality clauses and create commercial risks for
many parties, while communications slightly later in time
do not pose such risks. In other cases, real-time social
media posts may not breach confidentiality clauses but
might pose site security risks – or just mess up a carefully
programmed campaign by the communications team!
How do you justify acts that harm your clients for the
sake of engaging with the public, to that client and to
your peers? How comfortable would you feel explaining
your actions to a group of your professional peers? If you
think you wouldn’t be comfortable it is a bad sign!
T Am I being Truthful?
22 An introduction to professional ethics  September 2017
G To whom would the
possible courses of action
do the most Good?
H To whom would the
possible courses of action
do the most Harm?
The individuals involved? The archaeological
organisations? Clients and other stakeholders?
Who benefits from – or is harmed by – disclosure or
secrecy?
The issue is likely to have to do with the timing and the
medium of publicising information, rather than the
principle of engaging with the general public and
ultimately publishing the results of investigations.
References
Steare, R, 2014 Ethicability. London: Roger Steare Consulting Ltd. See also ethicability.org
Gawande, A, 2009 The Checklist Manifesto. New York: Metropolitan Books
Goleman, D, 2000 Leadership That Gets Results. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press
Collins, J, 2001 Good to Great. New York: Harper Business
Collins, J, 2009 How the Mighty Fall. London: Random House Business
George, B and Sims, P, 2007 True North. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass

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