NUR 2868 Assignment  Agencies For Quality

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NUR 2868 Assignment  Agencies For Quality

NUR 2868 Assignment  Agencies For Quality

 

Explore one of the agencies for quality improvement listed in this module’s lecture. Write a one-page summary of what the agency does, who it affects, and how it is utilized.

Implementing QA/QC procedures requires resources, expertise and time. In developing any QA/QC system, it is
expected that judgements will need to be made on the following:
• Resources allocated to QC for different source categories and the compilation process;
• Time allocated to conduct the checks and reviews of emissions estimates;
• Availability and access to information on activity data and emission factors, including data quality;
• Procedures to ensure confidentiality of inventory and source category information, when required;
• Requirements for archiving information;
• Frequency of QA/QC checks on different parts of the inventory;
• The level of QC appropriate for each source category;
• Whether increased effort on QC will result in improved emissions estimates and reduced uncertainties;
• Whether sufficient expertise is available to conduct the checks and reviews.
In practice, the QA/QC system is only part of the inventory development process and inventory agencies do not
have unlimited resources. Quality control requirements, improved accuracy and reduced uncertainty need to be
balanced against requirements for timeliness and cost effectiveness. A good practice system seeks to achieve
that balance and to enable continuous improvement of inventory estimates.
Within the QA/QC system, good practice provides for greater effort for key source categories and for those
source categories where data and methodological changes have recently occurred, than for other source
categories. It is unlikely that inventory agencies will have sufficient resources to conduct all the QA/QC
procedures outlined in this chapter on all source categories. In addition, it is not necessary to conduct all of these
procedures every year. For example, data collection processes conducted by national statistical agencies are not
likely to change significantly from one year to the next. Once the inventory agency has identified what quality

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controls are in place, assessed the uncertainty of that data, and documented the details for future inventory
reference, it is unnecessary to revisit this aspect of the QC procedure every year. However, it is good practice to
check the validity of this information periodically as changes in sample size, methods of collection, or frequency
of data collection may occur. The optimal frequency of such checks will depend on national circumstances.
While focusing QA/QC activities on key source categories will lead to the most significant improvements in the
overall inventory estimates, it is good practice to plan to conduct at least the general procedures outlined in
Section 8.6, General QC Procedures (Tier 1), on all parts of the inventory over a period of time. Some source
categories may require more frequent QA/QC than others because of their significance to the total inventory
estimates, contribution to trends in emissions over time or changes in data or characteristics of the source
category, including the level of uncertainty. For example, if technological advancements occur in an industrial
source category, it is good practice to conduct a thorough QC check of the data sources and the compilation
process to ensure that the inventory methods remain appropriate.
It is recognised that resource requirements will be higher in the initial stages of implementing any QA/QC
system than in later years. As capacity to conduct QA/QC procedures develops in the inventory agency and in
other associated organisations, improvements in efficiency should be expected.
General QC procedures outlined in Table 8.1, Tier 1 General Inventory Level QC Procedures, and a peer review
of the inventory estimates are considered minimal QA/QC activities for all inventory compilations. The general
procedures require no additional expertise in addition to that needed to develop the estimates and compile the
inventory and should be performed on estimates developed using Tier 1 or higher tier methods for source
categories. A review of the final inventory report by a person not involved in the compilation is also good
practice, even if the inventory were compiled using only Tier 1 methods. More extensive QC and more rigorous
review processes are encouraged if higher tier methods have been used. Availability of appropriate expertise
may limit the degree of independence of expert reviews in some cases. The QA/QC process is intended to ensure
transparency and quality

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