NURS 6051 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes

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NURS 6051 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes

NURS 6051 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes

Hello Colleagues,

The boy in the scenario was being treated with amoxicillin due to his positive rapid strep test and symptoms. Common symptoms include fever, red swollen tonsils, purulent tonsils, pain when swallowing, petechiae, odynophagia, and swollen lymph nodes (CDC, 2021). His local symptoms of inflammation involve vascular changes and leakage into the tissues (McNance & Huether, 2019). The redness and swelling are due to increased blood flow to the area from vasodilation. Capillaries dilate and allow white blood cells to leak into the infected area. His pain is from the increased pressure on the tissues from the accumulation of fluids in the area. The purulent exudate is the end result of phagocytizing cells dying in the area and being eliminated through epithelial tissue in the throat. These cells have already reached maturity and cannot replicate anymore. They are also sensitive to the acidic environment of the body, so they die after performing their immunological duties (McCance & Huether, 2019). The lymphatic system is the reason for the anterior and posterior cervical adenopathy. Lymphatic channels transport body fluids from the infection site to nodules. These nodules are swollen due to fluid shifts. The nodes act as a processing center introducing the invaders to B-cells, T-cells, and macrophages that reside in the nodes (NCBI, 2021). The immune system analyses the invaders and is able to fine tune its response.
The physiologic response to the amoxicillin was a type 1 hypersensitivity response. Cells in the body saw amoxicillin as a threat and started an inflammatory immune response. It all begins with mast cells. Mast cells line skin, blood vessels, and lung tissue. They can be activated by injury, chemicals, adaptive immune responses, or recognizing molecular patterns of viruses and bacteria (McCance & Huether, 2019). Immunoglobulin E (IgE), a chemical floating in blood plasm, binds to mast cells causing the release prostaglandins, interleukins, leukotrienes, and histamine through a process called degranulation. Mast cells also release chemicals that attract neutrophils and eosinophils to sites of injury where they phagocytose foreign invaders to the body. Histamine is the most important chemical in this reaction. When it binds to the H1 receptor it causes hives, vasodilation, bronchoconstriction, hypotension, and increased mucous production. This allows phagocytes such as neutrophils, eosinophils, and dendritic cells to enter the injured area. Red blood cells (RBCs), other body fluids, along with all white blood cells pass through causing edema to the affected areas. All of this extra fluid responding to the threat caused edema to his tongue, lips, airway and increased secretion of lung tissues. This is an urgent issue as it leads to airway compromise which is life threatening.
Strep throat is seen more in children than adults, especially ages five to 15 (CDC, 2018). Crowded areas such as schools and daycare centers increase risk of transmission (CDC, 2018). As of late, the quarantine has kept children at home so this could be slowing the spread. He is on the high end of the age for those children getting strep throat, but his social situation can also influence it.
Genetic factors play a role too. Approximately ten percent of all U.S. patients report having allergies to a penicillin class antibiotic in their past (CDC, n.d.). Parents can pass down allergies through genetics (NCBI, 2014). This is why it is a good idea to have children tested for allergies when they are younger. That way severe allergic reactions can be anticipated, and life-threatening situations can be avoided.

Thanks,

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NURS 6051 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes

NURS 6051 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes

Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (n.d.) Is it really a penicillin allergy? https://www.cdc.gov/antibiotic-use/community/pdfs/penicillin-factsheet.pdf
Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (2021, January 12) Strep throat: all you need to know. https://www.cdc.gov/groupastrep/diseases-public/strep-throat.html
Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (2018, November) Group A streptococcal (gas) disease. https://www.cdc.gov/groupastrep/diseases-hcp/strep-throat.html
McCance, K., & Huethe, S. (2019) Pathophysiology the biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8thed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier
National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). (2021). Adenopathy. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513250/
National Center for Biotechnology. (2014) Genetics of allergic diseases. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4415518/

Discussion: Alterations in Cellular Processes
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At its core, pathology is the study of disease. Diseases occur for many reasons. But some, such as cystic fibrosis and Parkinson’s Disease, occur because of alterations that prevent cells from functioning normally.
Understanding of signals and symptoms of alterations in cellular processes is a critical step in diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. For the Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN), this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.
For this Discussion, you examine a case study and explain the disease that is suggested. You examine the symptoms reported and explain the cells that are involved and potential alterations and impacts.
To prepare:
• By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific scenario for this Discussion. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.
By Day 3 of Week 1
Post an explanation of the disease highlighted in the scenario you were provided. Include the following in your explanation:
• The role genetics plays in the disease.
• Why the patient is presenting with the specific symptoms described.
• The physiologic response to the stimulus presented in the scenario and why you think this response occurred.
• The cells that are involved in this process.
• How another characteristic (e.g., gender, genetics) would change your response.
Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.
By Day 6 of Week 1
Respond to at least two of your colleagues on 2 different days and respectfully agree or disagree with your colleague’s assessment and explain your reasoning. In your explanation, include why their explanations make physiological sense or why they do not
Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the “Post to Discussion Question” link and then select “Create Thread” to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully before clicking on Submit!
Submission and Grading Information
Grading Criteria

To access your rubric:
Week 1 Discussion Rubric

Post by Day 3 of Week 1 and Respond by Day 6 of Week 1

To Participate in this Discussion:
Week 1 Discussion

 

 

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