NURS 6521 Discussion Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

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NURS 6521 Discussion Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

NURS 6521 Discussion Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

Working in an intermediate care unit, I get to see patients from all races with different healthcare needs and conditions. One obvious thing observed from the so many patients that come into the facility is the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in patients ages 20 years and above. Though the diseases are common, the types of medications used in treating them may differ in dose, brand, and pricing. When prescribing medications for an individual patient, the physician considers the effects of the drugs and the mechanism of their action on that particular patient.
Let us consider a 75-year-old male patient who is admitted for uncontrolled Diabetes. The patient has a past medical history of Diabetes type II and takes metformin to control his glucose but had not been able to afford the refills for his medication. On admission the patient presented with a blood glucose of 288 mg/dl and was ordered Lispro on a low dose sliding scale with blood glucose monitoring before meals and at bedtime. The patient was assigned to a young nurse who had recently just started working on the unit. Just before the lunch trays came in, the nurse went to review the patients’ blood glucose levels the nurse tech had checked. Without paying much attention, the nurse drew up 8 units of lispro insulin and administered it to the patient for what she thought was a blood sugar of 288mg/dl. After about 20 minutes the nurse discovered that the patient was sweating a lot and had an increased heart rate with slight shivers. The young nurse called the attention of an older nurse and explained all the care she had provided to the patient prior to discovering his current state. The two nurses reviewed the documentation on the computer and saw that the patients’ last blood glucose check was 98mg/dl and not 288mg/dl as the young nurse had thought it was. The older nurse immediately got a glucometer and checked the patients’ blood glucose which was now 52mg/dl, and also discovered that the patient had not eaten anything. The older nurse immediately followed the establishment’s protocol and administered 1 gram of glucagon to the patient, checked his blood glucose which had gone up slightly and then administered another gram, checked his blood glucose again, and then provided the patient with a small cup of orange juice and a cracker.

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NURS 6521 Discussion Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

NURS 6521 Discussion Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics

As nurse practitioners, it is important to know and understand the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic processes. Pharmacokinetics is the process of a drug being absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and excreted from the body (Rosenthal and Burchum, 2021). Pharmacodynamics is the relationship between drug concentration at the site of action and the resulting effects which include the time and severity of therapeutic and adverse effects (DiPiro, 2008).
Lispro Insulin is a rapid-acting insulin that has a short duration of action which is used to improve blood glucose management in patients with diabetes (Rosenthal and Burchum, 2021). It is more effective than the normal human insulin in improving and helping to maintain blood glucose control (Campbell et al., 1996). Factors that might influence the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of insulin are the size of the dose, the injected volume and the insulin concentration, vigorously rubbing the site of the injection, increase in temperature which increases absorption rate, site of the injection (absorption is faster when administered in the abdomen), and exercising of extremity within an hour of injection can speed up absorption (Donner and Sarkar, 2019). The patient received a large dose of insulin for an inaccurate blood glucose reading and presented with a hypoglycemic reaction due to the large amount of insulin that was administered.
A personalized care plan for the patient based on influencing factors and the patients history would be to set goals for the patient that include effective treatments to normalize and manage blood glucose levels, decrease the risk for hypoglycemic or hyperglycemic events using insulin medication, diet, and exercise, informing and educating the patient on the importance of compliance with medication regimen and importance of monitoring blood glucose, providing the patient with prescription savings or discount cards like Good Rx, and providing the patient with location to local community clinics that help with providing low-cost prescription medications.
Ensuring that the patient is properly educated and provided with the necessary resources to provide for his medication will promote his participation in self-care and ensure his compliance with monitoring and maintaining manageable blood glucose levels.

References:
Campbell, R. K., Campbell, L. K., & White, J. R. (1996, November). Insulin lispro: its role in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The Annals of pharmacotherapy. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8913409/.
Donner, T., & Sarkar, S. (2019). Insulin – Pharmacology, Therapeutic Regimens, and Principles of Intensive Insulin Therapy. Endotext [Internet]. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK278938/.
DiPiro, J. T. (2008). Pharmacotherapy: A pathophysiologic approach. McGraw-Hill Medical.
Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2021). Lehne’s pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice nurses and physician assistants (2nd ed.) Elsevier.

 

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