PHI 2000 Assignment Normative Theories
PHI 2000 Assignment Normative Theories
You are called to consult in the Critical Care Unit of your
local hospital. 53-year-old JoEllen was admitted after taking an overdose of
prescription medications with alcohol. On admission, she said, “Not
supposed to be here . . . ,” but soon became uncommunicative, and her
condition is deteriorating rapidly. Her son has arrived with a notarized advance
directive in which JoEllen specifically asks not to be placed on life support.
What should you recommend to the attending health professionals?
Write a paper addressing this topic, supporting your
position with credible research. You may begin your research with suggested
Resources, but you are also expected to conduct your own independent research
into the scholarly and professional resources of the field. The Capella library
is recommended as a source for reliable materials.
In explaining your position, address each of the following
What features of the situation are relevant for making a
What would a deontologist like Immanuel Kant recommend?
What would a consequentialist like John Stuart Mill
How do you justify your own decision about what to do?
Written communication: Written communication should be free
of errors that detract from the overall message.
APA formatting: Include a title page and a references page,
formatted according to APA (6th edition) style and formatting.
References: A typical paper will include support from a
minimum of 3–5 references. You may use some of the materials recommended in the
Resources, but you should also include support from your independent research
of scholarly or professional materials.
Length: A typical paper will be 4–6 typed, double-spaced
pages in length.
Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12-point.
Normative theories were first proposed by Fred Siebert, Theodore Peterson and Wilbur Schramm in their book called “Four Theories of the Press”. At first the word “Normative Theory” was pronounced in USA during the height of ‘cold war’ with communism and soviet. Often it called as western theories of mass media.
A Normative theory describes an ideal way for a media system to be controlled and operated by the government, authority, leader and public.
These theories are basically different from other communication theories because normative theories of press are not providing any scientific explanations or prediction. At the same these “four theories of the press” were came from many sources rather than a single source. Sometimes media practitioners, social critics and academics also involved to develop these normative theories.
Normative theories are more focused in the relationship between Press and the Government than press and the audience. These theories are more concern about the ownership of the media and who controls the press or media in the country.
The four theories of the Press/Media
Few questions will helps to understand the needs of the normative theories
- Is media can published or broadcast any type’s of content will earn more profits in a shortest time? (think about Yellow journalism / Talbots )
- Is media can provide any public service even if no immediate profits can be earned?
- Is media can participate in any issues and solving the social problems?
- Is it essential for media to protect the consumers from the culprits, business frauds and corrupt bureaucrats by serving as a watch dog?
- What people expect from media during the time of crisis?
- Is media should broadcast the highly rated content even if it has high level of violence?
- Is a news paper publishing the unethical business content to encourage the company for its higher advertisements pay?
These questions are linked and concerned about the media day-to-day activities.
- In 1996, NBC news department accused an innocent man in Atlantic Olympic bombing.
- In 1998, ABC radio falsely announced the death of the great comedian “Bob Hope” after receiving the error message from associated press.
- Past few years how wiki leaks releasing the classified documents in online media and its effect.